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Avogadro's Number, often denoted as N_{A}, is a fundamental concept in chemistry and physical sciences. It defines the number of entities (such as atoms or molecules) in one mole of a substance. This guide elucidates the concept of Avogadro's Number, its associated calculations, formulas, practical applications, and individuals who have made significant contributions to its understanding.

g/mole | |

g/cm^{3} | |

cm^{3} |

N = mole^{-1} |

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Did you know that Avogadro's Number is approximately 6.022 × 10^{23} entities per mole? Named after Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro, it not only serves as a bridge between the micro and macro worlds but also is celebrated every year on October 23rd, from 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m., as "Mole Day" by chemists and chemistry enthusiasts.

The key formula involving Avogadro's number is the definition of the mole. It is expressed as:

1 mole = N_{A} (Avogadro's Number) of entities

It is also used in calculating the number of entities (N) in a given amount of a substance in moles (n). The formula is:

N = n × N_{A}

Avogadro's Number finds extensive usage in chemistry labs worldwide. For instance, if a chemist needs to make a solution with a specific number of molecules, they can use Avogadro's Number to determine how many moles of the substance to add. It's also used in stoichiometric calculations, which balance chemical equations and predict reaction outcomes.

Amedeo Avogadro, an Italian scientist, was the key contributor to the concept that now bears his name. Avogadro's hypothesis, that equal volumes of gases contain an equal number of molecules, was initially disregarded by his contemporaries. However, it was later proven to be accurate and led to the definition of the mole, fundamentally transforming the field of chemistry. For his contributions, Avogadro was honored by having the number of entities in a mole named after him.

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