Welcome to the Titration Tutorial! In the field of chemistry, titration is a widely used technique for determining the concentration of a substance in a solution. It is an essential analytical method in various branches of chemistry, including analytical chemistry and biochemistry. This tutorial will introduce you to the concept of titration, explain the associated calculations and formulas, discuss its relevance in different fields, and provide real-life examples of its applications.
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Titration involves calculations to determine the concentration of the unknown substance. The formula used in titration calculations is:
Concentration of Analyte (in mol/L) = (Volume of Titrant × Molarity of Titrant) / Volume of Analyte
In this formula, the volume of the titrant represents the volume of the solution added during the titration, and the molarity of the titrant is the concentration of the titrant solution.
Titration is a versatile technique that finds relevance in several scientific disciplines:
An example of titration in real-life applications is acid-base titration. In this scenario, a strong acid is titrated with a strong base or vice versa to determine the concentration of the acid or base. For instance, in the titration of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), the following balanced equation represents the reaction:
HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O
By carefully adding a solution of sodium hydroxide to hydrochloric acid and monitoring the reaction's progress using an indicator, the point of neutralization can be observed. The volume of the sodium hydroxide solution required to reach the equivalence point can be used to calculate the concentration of the hydrochloric acid.
Friedrich Mohr, a German chemist, made significant contributions to the development of titration techniques. He pioneered the use of standardized solutions and developed a range of accurate and precise titration methods. Mohr's advancements in titration laid the foundation for the modern practice of analytical chemistry.
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